An automobile requires high torque when climbing hills and when starting, even though they are performed at low speeds. On other hand, when running at high speeds on level roads, high torque is not required because of momentum.  So requirement of a device is occur, which can change the vehicle’s torque and its speed according to road condition or when the driver need. This device is known as transmission box.

Function of transmission box (gear box) in automobile:

The transmission box which is also known as the gear box is the second element of the power train in an automobile. It is used to change the speed and torque of vehicle according to variety of road and load condition. Transmission box change the engine speed into torque when climbing hills and when the vehicle required. Sometimes it is known as torque converter. Main functions of a gear box is as follow:

  1. Provide the torque needed to move the vehicle under a variety of road and load conditions. It does this by changing the gear ratio between the engine crankshaft and vehicle drive wheels.
  2. Be shifted into reverse so the vehicle can move backward.
  3. Be shifted into neutral for starting the engine.


Main components of a gear box:

In any device two or more component works together and fulfills the required function. In a transmission box four components are required to fulfill its function. These components are-

1. Counter shaft:



Counter shaft is a shaft which connects with the clutch shaft directly. It contains the gear which connects it to the clutch shaft as well as the main shaft. It may be run runs at the engine speed or at lower than engine speed according to gear ratio.

2. Main shaft:



It is the shaft which runs at the vehicle speed. It carries power form the counter shaft by use of gears and according to the gear ratio, it runs at different speed and torque compares to counter shaft. One end of this shaft is connects with the universal shaft.

3. Gears:



Gears are used to transmit the power form one shaft to another. They are most useful component of transmission box because the variation is torque of counter shaft and main shaft is depend on the gear ratio. The gear ratio is the ratio of the driven gear teeth to the driving gear teeth. If gear ratio is large than one, the main shaft revolves at lower speed than the counter shaft and the torque of the main shaft is higher than the counter shaft. On other hand if the gear ratio is less than one, than the main shaft revolves at higher speed than the counter shaft and the torque of the main shaft is lower than the counter shaft. A small car gear box contains four speed gear ratio and one reverse gear ratio.



4. Bearings:



Whenever the rotary motion, bearings are required to support the revolving part and reduce the friction. In the gear box both counter and main shaft are supported by the bearing.


Working principle gear box:



In a gear box, the counter shaft is mashed to the clutch with a use of a couple of gear. So the counter shaft is always in running condition. When the counter shaft is bring in contact with the main shaft by use of meshing gears, the main shaft start to rotate according to the gear ratio. When want to change the gear ratio, simply press the clutch pedal which disconnect the counter shaft with engine and change connect the main shaft with counter shaft by another gear ratio by use of gearshift lever. In an gear box, the gear teeth and other moving metal must not touch. They must be continuously separated by a thin film of lubricant. This prevents excessive wear and early failure. Therefore a gearbox runs partially filled with lubricant oil.